Glossary

TERMS & PHRASES

The following is a simple reference for most of the words a student of aikido, judo, and jodo might need to know. For a simplified guide to Japanese pronunciation, click here.

A

B

ai : harmony, coming together

aigamae : matching stance

aikido : they way of harmony

aikidoka : one who practices aikido

ashi : foot or feet

atari : to crush

ate : strike

atemi : strike or striking

ayumi ashi : alternating feet (walking)

barai : to sweep (also "harai")

bokken : wooden practice sword

budo : study of martial arts

budoka : one who studies martial arts

D

dan : rank or grade, as in "shodan"

deashi : forward/advanced foot

do : path or way

do : body, torso

dojo : practice hall

dori : against

dosa : action

E

eri : lapel or collar

G

gaeshi : twist (also "kaeshi")

gake : hook

gamae : posture, stance (also "kamae")

gari : to reap

gatame : lock (also "katame")

gatana : blade (also "katana")

gedan : low

geiko : training (also "keiko")

gi : uniform worn by budoka

giri : cut

go : five

go no sen : taking initiative after an opponent has attacked

godo geiko : informal practice with two or more dojo without a set lesson (a "play day")

Gokyo no Waza : the five groups of throwing techniques in judo

goshi : hip (also "koshi")

guruma : wheel

gyaku : revearse

H

ha : wing

hachi : eight

hadaka : naked, bare

hajime : start

hakama : Japanese pleated pant-skirt

hanasu : release

hane : spring, bounce

hara : the center (lower abdomen) of gravity, life energy, etc.

harai : sweep

hasso : all eight directions

hazumi : force created through the movement of one's own center of gravity

hazushi : to evade

henka : variation of a technique

hidari : left

hiki : elbow (also "hiji")

hineri : turn, twist

hishigi : lock

hissage : to lower, make drop

hiza : knee

ho : corner

hon : normal, basic

hyoshi : timing, of footsteps, of gripping, or a center moving through space

I

ichi : one

ikioi : force created independent of the center, such as with hands, arms of feet

ippon : one point

irimi : entering

J

jigotai : defensive posture

jime : choke (also "shime")

jiyu waza : free-style techniques

jo : short staff

jodan : high

jodo : the study of the short staff

jodoka : one who studies jodo

joseki : upper area of the dojo, where the instructor sits

ju : gentle

ju : ten

judo : the gentle way

judoka : one who practices judo

juji : crossed

jutsu : skill, art

K

kaeshi : reverse, counter (also "gaeshi")

kaiten : rotation

kake : the throw (see kazushi and tsukuri)

kamae : stance, position

kami : upper

kangeiko : winter training

kansetsue : joint

kasumi : haze

kata : prearranged series of techniques

kata : shoulder

katame : to hold, to secure (also "gatame")

katana : long sword

katate : single hand

keiko : training (also "geiko")

keikogi : training uniform

ken : sword

kesa : diagonal lapel

ki : internal energy, spirit

kihon : fundamental techniques

kiyotsuke : attention

ko : minor, small

kohai : between patners this is the lower ranked, or less expereinced

koryu : old school

koshi : hip (also "goshi")

kote : wrist

ku : nine

kubi : neck

kuri : to guide

kuzure : modified

kuzushi : off-balance

kyu : grades or ranks below shodan

M

ma : space

ma ai : space betwen opponents

mae : front

maita : I surrender!

maki : to envelope

makikomi : to wrap, winding

makura : pillow

masutemi : back sacrifice

mata : thigh

matte : wait, attention

mawashi : to turn, spin or circulate

men : head

metsuke : focal point of vision

midare dome : turbulence control

migi : right

mitori geiko : to train by watching

monomi : a vision of things

morote : both hands

mune : chest

mushin : no mind

N

nage : throwing

nagekomi : throwing practice

nami : common, usual

nafudakake : a name board displayed in a dojo showing members’ names and seniority

nana : seventh

newaza : grappling

ni : two

ni : see "Knights Who Say"

O

O : great, big, honorable

obi : belt

okuri : to slide, follow

omote : front, to face something

osae komi : control, hold down

oshi : push

osu : to push

otoshi : to drop

R

rai uchi : thunderous strike

ran : chaos

randori : practice of techniques

rei : bow

renraku waza : combination of techniques

renshu : to drill, practice

roku : six

ryote : both hands

ryote dori : two hands grasping

ryu : style or school

S

sage jo / sage to : neutral jo / neutral sword

sakan : penetrate from the left

sakeru : evasion

san : three

sankaku : triangle

sasae : to prop

seigan : in the eyes

seiza : sitting on the knees

sempai : between partners this is the higher ranked or teacher

seoi : to carry on the back

sensei : teacher

sempai : senior partner

Sen no sen : simultaneous attack

Sen sen no sen : attacking before an opponent has a chance to attack, taking the initiative away

shaman : diagonal

shi : four

shiai : competition, tournament

shichi : seven

shidachi : receiving sword

shigaku : blind spot

shihan : master teacher

shiho : four corners

shikko : walking on the knees

shime : strangle

shisei : posture

shizumi : sinking body

sho : first

shomen : front of the head

sode : sleeve

sotai : in pairs

soto : outside

suburi : practice a motion through many repetitions

suigetsu : solar plexus

sukashi : evasive movement

suki : opening, vulnerability, moment of inattention

sukui : to scoop

sumi : corner

sutemi : sacrifice

suwari : kneeling

T

tachi : standing

tachi : sword

tandoku : solo, alone

tani : valley

tomoe : circular

tanto : knife

taoshi : push down

te : hand

tegatana : hand blade

tekubi : wrist

tenkan : turning

tenkai : circular

tobi : fly, leap (as in tobi ukemi)

tokui : proficient

tokui waza : favorite technique

tori : receiver of a technique

tsube : hilt of the sword

tsubame : a swallow (bird)

tsugi ashi : sliding step (walking)

tsuki : thrust

tsukomi : grip

tsukuri : fitting in

tsurikomi : lift and pull into

 

U

uchi : inside

uchi : strike

uchidachi : attacker (jodo)

uchideshi : live-in student

uchikomi : repetitive fitting-in drill

ude : arm

uke : attacker

uki : floating

ukemi : falling

ura : moving behind

ura waza : reversal of a technique

ushiro : rear, behind

utsuri : to switch

uwagi : training, jacket

W

waki : side of chest

wakizashi : short sword

wari : to split

waza : techniques

Y

yama : mountain

yame : stop

yoi : get ready

yoko : side

yon : fourth

yudansha : black belt ranks

yoshi : continue

Z

zanshin : unbroken concentration

zubon : pants of a dogi

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